Most seminaries were closed, and the publication of most religious material was prohibited. In the ensuing Cold War, the two sides clashed indirectly in proxy wars. "Chicago Plan Commission Approves 1000 South Michigan". It became the duty of the Russian Bolsheviks to protect what they had in Russia, and avoid military confrontations that might destroy their bridgehead. The Soviet Union, as a Marxist-Leninist state.". 227 Nevertheless, the IOC held to the traditional rules regarding amateurism. 215 In practice, the Soviet system subscribed to a narrow interpretation of this right, and in fact utilized a range of official measures to discourage religion and curb the activities of religious groups. Undergraduate Research Journal for the Human Sciences. 161 In 1991, the Soviet Union had a pipeline network of 82,000 kilometres (51,000 mi) for crude oil and another 206,500 kilometres (128,300 mi) for natural gas. Brzezinski, Zbigniew; Brzezinski, Zbigniew K; Sullivan, Paige (1997). Karelia was split off from Russia as a Union Republic in March 1940 and was reabsorbed in 1956.